Oh boy are y’all in for a treat this week. I hope y’all like words because there are quite a few in this post. You’ve probably seen me refer to Postmodernism at least once, and if you follow me on Twitter, you know that I pretty frequently garbage post about it.
Of all the styles in architectural history, none has become as ubiquitous in our suburban landscape as Postmodernism, later called PoMo, for short. But what is it? How did it get here? Most importantly, Why do I care?
BECAUSE POSTMODERNISM IS DANK AS HELL:
M2 Tokyo, Kengo Kuma, 1991 (Photo: flickr/wakiii)
But before we get to this dankness, we have to talk…
A wee bit about Modernism
For most of the 20th century, modernism dominated architecture. It’s focus on design efficiency and the lack or absence of ornamentation (ornament was for the Bourgeoisie) was eagerly adopted and practiced by architects such as Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, and Walter Gropius who were fascinated with the technological advancements of the early 20th century, specifically, the factory.
Le Corbusier, the French-Swiss architect who famously said that a house is, “a machine for living in,” and his contemporaries were entranced both by the forms of industrial structures and their streamlined efficiency, as well as by the new materials of the modern day: steel and reinforced concrete.
Don’t worry, I’ll be doing a post all about Modernism (which is my soapbox bae) so I don’t want to spend too much time here, but it’s the starting point of Postmodernism, so it’s, y’know, worth a mention.
Here’s the thing about Modernism: it dominated architecture practiced by architects for almost a century, but made up only a small (well-documented and beloved) part of residential architecture built during its reign.
The thing is, the people who toiled their lives away in the factories absolutely DID NOT want to go home to a house that looked like the factory.
However, traditional architecture quickly (by the mid-forties) became a huge faux-pas in the practice of architects and was omitted from architectural education. In addition an exploding population that now needed housing (the Modernists thought it was a great idea to put them in high rises and we all know how well that turned out) emerged that wanted said housing to look like the centuries-old conception of home (aka a box with a door, windows, and topped with a triangle hat).
The combination of these factors led to developers sweeping in (as architects chilled in the Modernism echo chamber), and, lo and behold, we ended up with places like this:
While the modernists were practicing modernism, the rest of us were voraciously exploding out into the wilderness with our cars and highways and motels and suburbs and shopping centers and other ‘vulgar’ pursuits. And nothing communicated said vulgar pursuits better than the booming city of Las Vegas.
Over the first half of the 20th century, the field of architecture was more than a little disconnected from the general public, and without their guidance, the suburban and commercial world developed an aesthetic language all their own.
In the late 1960s, the architects Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, and Steven Izenour, took a group of students from Venturi’s studio at the Yale School of Architecture on a long trip to Las Vegas.
What happened to Venturi & co. in Vegas definitely didn’t stay in Vegas, and architecture would never be the same.
Learning from Las Vegas: The Stirrings of Postmodern Architecture
Venturi & co. set out to document the landscape of the largest and gaudiest strip in the country and came out with, yes, a study of a city and its forms, but more importantly a manifesto in two parts: first, that modern architecture is ignorant of what most people want, and what most people want is worth studying, and secondly, that the past has a place in present architecture, and that ornament in architecture has meaning, is intrinsically symbolic, and can be used communicate ideas.
The underlying foundation of Learning from Las Vegas is that architecture is both a space and a symbol, and that modern architects abandoned the symbol in favor of the space, and in doing such made the space itself a symbol, AKA:
Venturi called this type of architecture –where the space itself (and by extension, the structure, and function of a building) was the symbol – a duck after the famous NY roadside stand that takes the actual shape of a duck.
He contrasts this to the concept of the decorated shed where the space and structure are at the service of the program (the intended use or function of a building), and the ornament is applied independently of those things.
TL;DR: The duck is a building that is a symbol, the decorated shed is the building that applies symbols. Venturi argues that the history of architecture is the history of ornament, and after this brief deviation of modernism, ornament and its symbolism is something to which we should return.
The Expression of an Idea: Postmodernism in Action
Needless to say, Venturi & Co. telling the whole world of architecture “up yours” went about as well as you’d expect. But after a bit of fighting, a school of architects emerged and began working in this new style, a style that combined the symbolism of the past with the forms of the present.
The Vanna Venturi House by Robert Venturi (1964) [Photo: Wikipedia] takes the traditional symbolism or idea of the house as a box with a gabled roof and a front door flanked by windows, and executes it in a new context – with new materials, minimal lines (hence the integration of the modern) and a bit of architectural irony and humor (e.g. the roofline above the front door is imitating a broken pediment, like one that is often found above a front door)
It quickly gained public popularity in the 80s and 90s and, thus, transformed into PoMo. (For the curious, this dichotomy between artistic Postmodernism and corporate/neoliberal PoMo is explained at length by Charles Jencks, the intensely detailed taxonomist of the movement, in his 2011 book The Story of Postmodernism.)
From Postmodernism to PoMo
In 1984, this
broken pediment architectural punskyscraper by Philip Johnson went up in New York and became the most public symbol (and triumph/downfall) of Postmodernism:
Let’s just say developers loved it. Through developers looking for a big ROI, the great, elegant glass box of modernism, was transformed through said developers into cheap, soulless office boxes, forgettable skyscrapers, and loathed public housing. Their shoddy modernist jobs were, by the 80s, becoming rather passé and unpopular. Thank gawd the Sony Building came along, the developers thought.
AND SO, the original spirit of Postmodernism, lovable, colorful, nostalgic for most of my readers and myself:
WAS NOW, through developers seeking a quick ROI, transformed into:
So, let me get this straight:
This is the crux of the failure of PoMo: Postmodernism was about using architectural ornament within a modern context because we have emotional connections and connotations to architectural ornament. These buildings were about saying through ornament “I AM A HOUSE” or “I AM A BANK” mixed, of course, with a bit of clever architectural humor.
However, this was also the 80s & 90s and the global corporation ruled all, and rather than using the clever language of Postmodernism, PoMo was global corporations saying architecturally: “WORK IS YOUR HOME” or “THE MALL IS YOUR HOME” or “DOLLAR GENERAL IS YOUR HOME.”
That dull and mundane office block? Now it’s an insulting, dull, and mundane office block with a gable and Palladian windows.
Remember those people at the beginning of this post who didn’t want to live in modernist houses that looked like the factories they toiled away at?
We have no choice but to live in houses that look like our office blocks, because our office blocks took the architectural symbols of our houses. And, in response, our houses took the vomited up architectural symbols from their corporate remixes, because residential architecture almost always imitates the public architecture of the time.
Now, I’m not saying McMansions are a product of Postmodernism, or that they are themselves Postmodern architecture, because neither is true. It’s more of a coincidence than anything else that they borrowed certain tropes from the PoMo office tower and integrated them into features like the two-story entryway with the huge transom window.
So what did we learn from this endeavor?
Not much. And, much to Venturi’s chagrin, after this brief period of badly decorated sheds, architecture went right back to making, big, expensive ducks.
BONUS: here’s a pic of me speaking at TEDxMidAtlantic about how much I love buildings and want to encourage others to love buildings as much as I do:
That’s it for PoMo, friends! I’ll see you Thursday with a Dank Southern Special, so stay tuned.
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basically if the government doesn’t put a stop to brexit it’ll be entirely because they would rather burn the country to the ground than be called “u-turners” and that’s everything wrong with our politicians
Such a biting billboard could have only come from one group: The Nuisance Committee. You likely haven’t heard of them, but you’ve probably played their most popular product.
While you are worrying about whether beta readers will steal your ideas, there is a more genuine threat on the horizon.
When offered a publishing contract, please do all your research before you sign. There are a number of fakes and scammers out there, as well as good-intentioned amateurs that don’t know how to get your work to a wide audience. I won’t tell the heartbreaking stories here – there are too many.
Being published badly is worse than being never published.
It can destroy your career and your dreams.
The quick check is to google the publishing house name + scam or warning.
But, to be sure, check with these places first. They aren’t infallible (nothing is) but they can help you protect yourself. They are written and maintained by expereinced writers, editors, publishers and legal folks.
and the WRITER BEWARE blog
Keep yourself and your work safe.
This is really important, so if you are a writer or have writer friends, or you are a writing blog, please reblog it.
Just to let you know, PublishAmerica changed their name to America Star Books.
HEAD’S UP, WRITER TYPES: THIS IS AN IMPORTANT PSA!
Also applies to many so-called freelance sites that are just content mills, and may not pay unless your work is used, even if the contract seems designed otherwise.
Listen, reading these is like legit reading horror stories. When it comes to publishing your writing, always, always, ALWAYS do your research. Not only will it help you avoid scams, but it will also be likely to help you land a much better fit for an agent/publisher/whatever. Knowing more is never going to hurt.
Omg!!! Thanks for the warning! Writers— reblog!
I’ve heard stories like this that are scarier than horror stories. This is an all time worst nightmare for a writer. Everyone reblog and make sure you keep your work safe!
WikiLeaks went from being an organization built to expose corruption to being an antisemitic Russian propaganda unit.
Also lets not forget that wikileaks’ 2012 dump of Syrian government internal emails had been suspiciously scrubbed of mentions of around 2 billion euros being moved to and hidden in a Russian state-owned bank.
But, luckily for everyone, the hackers who had gained access to these emails shared them with more organisations than just wikileaks, and so the discrepancy was noticed and picked up by journalists elsewhere. And a chatlog was leaked at the time showing a wikileaks staffer (now in prison) talking with one of the hackers about this email and this Russian bank account specifically. A journalist covering this was then threatened by wikileaks via their official twitter account, controlled entirely by Julian Assange.
One of the podcasts I listen to (Stuff They Don’t Want You To Know, if I’m remembering accurately) did an episode on Wikileaks and the leak regarding the DNC.
Wikileaks is incredibly political. It’s not just #receipts on various governments. It has its own political agenda.
I find it fascinating that WikiLeaks seems very…anti Hillary. (Not to mention super antisemitic like YIKES). Which of course is interesting because Russia is very much in support of Trump, which frankly should concern people. Just…keep these things in mind when gathering information.
So I got tired of not seeing any news on HRC’s actual positions because every single media outlet is busy fact-checking Trump’s latest Twitter tantrum, and decided to look some up.
Also, tired of stories about 26-year-olds complaining that they can’t get behind Clinton because they don’t know what she stands for, and also have no idea who Ralph Nader is, even though these frickin’ kids are only two years younger than me and also Wikipedia exists
But anyway. Hillary Clinton! Actual positions!
Guys, there’s so much to love.
- We already knew she wants harder regulation on the megabanks, right?
- Not as hardcore as Bernie wants, but in the same direction?
- Turns out she bundles that with a bunch of provisions to support and protect credit unions!
- Seriously, I love my credit union. And they’re tiny and responsible and don’t secretly open millions of accounts in the names of unaware users.
- Universal quality pre-K for every kid!
- Paid medical leave and new-parent leave. Not just for new moms, either. Regardless of gender.
- Funding childcare centers on college campuses for student parents!
- omg you guys, her plans for addressing autism. Note the total absence of the word “curing.” It’s all about “providing support” and “early diagnosis” and “improving access” and “increasing opportunities.”
- She’s full of specific plans for Alzheimer’s research and treatment
- Including supporting stem-cell research
- You know how otherwise work-ready people sometimes get stuck as unpaid caregivers when a family member becomes sick or disabled? Well, Hillary wants to give those people credit where credit is due.
- By which I mean, tax credit
- And Social Security benefits
- and you know the horrific unnecessary price hikes we’ve seen on EpiPens and various livesaving drugs? Think that oughta be a crime? So does HRC.
- Plus she supports emergency imports of similar treatments from other countries (the ones with quality safety standards, obv) if that’s what it takes to save lives
- Hillary stands with Planned Parenthood
- Supports more funding for VA mental health treatments
- And better training for police on how to de-escalate when they’re called in on a crisis situation
- Seriously, she’s coming at mental health from all sides, it’s fantastic
- Her rhetoric about the police also hits better training to deal with implicit bias
- Comprehensive background checks for gun buying!
- Close the Charleston loophole
- End the special legal protections that gun manufacturers get when the rest of the manufacturing industry doesn’t
- eyyyy, btw, guess where Sanders fell on that issue?
- that’s right: this time Clinton was the one dragging Bernie to the left
- Solar panels!
- I mean, clean energy in general, but “solar panels” is the shiniest part
- Automatic voter registration
- AUTOMATIC VOTER REGISTRATION
- No more harried every-four-year drives pleading for everyone to register, even if it’s inconvenient, even if there are serious barriers in your way
- No more “welcome to the polling center, whoops, looks like you were registered but it got thrown out on a technicality and nobody told you”
- Automatic voter registration!!
- Raise the minimum wage to $12/hr
- Still not the $16/hr we’d have if it had kept up with inflation since the ‘70s, but a big improvement
- I’m not even in a minimum-wage job and this would still give me a raise of at least $320/month
- and obviously the tipped minimum wage is a national shame, well guess what, HRC wants to do away with that
- Fewer loopholes and more taxes for the super-rich, including the Buffett Rule and a millionaire tax
- Hella infrastructure investment plans: covering our roads, bridges, airports, dams, public transit, and Internet access
- She’s planning to upgrade our 25 most costly freight bottlenecks
- Did you know our country had a cost issue with freight bottlenecks?
- Because I had no idea
- and this happens over and over with her policies
- things you didn’t even know were things
- but Hermione Rodham Clinton has already looked up the statistics, talked to the experts, and written the ten-page memo
- and listen, voting for HRC for no other reason than to keep Trump and his tax-evading business-bankrupting employee-stiffing racist sexist across-the-board-hateful loose-cannon general inanity out of office is completely legitimate –
- but if I never see another “why don’t we know more about her plans?? it is a hopeless unsolvable mystery for the ages!” post again it will be too soon.
This is the conscience I’m voting.
Do not come at me with any lesser of two evils bullshit or “well, at least she’s not Trump.”
Bitch has her shit together and it’s time people start respecting that!
Trump is only two points ahead in Texas now. If you’re in Texas and vote third party or don’t vote this year, I will personally never forgive you for stealing the joy of watching the GOP freak out at Texas going blue from me.
If you have to vote where these people are going to be crowding your polling place, I wanna preemptively congratulate you on your bravery.
While chances for voter suppression and fraud are not as high as you might think, I want to take a hot second and say this:
If you are required to attend a polling station where there are assholes trying to turn people away-record and document them. If you feel safe enough, get hard evidence that these people are knowingly attempting to prevent people from voting and contact the authorities. Only the people directly working the polls will ask for your ID so you can receive the correct ballot. If someone asks for your voter registration or drivers license outside of the building they are trying to keep you from voting. If someone touches you to prevent you from entering the polling station call the police or have someone do it for you.
Suppressing your right to vote is a federal offense.